Patrick Draper

Comedian

“Hello, I am Patrick Draper

Welcome to my ramblings!”



About Me

×××
Nottingham based deadpan Comedian

Who am I?


Since Patrick first nonchalantly ambled onto the stage in October 2011, he has cemented his place on the UK comedy circuit with a mixed bag of deadpan jokes, visual gags and songs. "His unenthusiastic style has a nice, unhurried rhythm..." - Steve Bennett (Chortle) After making it to the finals of the English Comedian Of The Year awards in 2015, Patrick then took his début show, "Absolutely Vacuous" to the Edinburgh Fringe festival. Where his laissez-faire hour of comedy received a "Highly Recommended Show" accolade from Fringe Review amongst other glowing critiques. “A gem of a show” – Fringe Review Patrick can now be found making people laugh in some of the most prestigious comedy clubs all over the UK, and has forthcoming gigs for Funhouse Comedy, The Glee Club, Custard Comedy, ad Stagefright Comedy - as well a new show at this years Nottingham Comedy Festival on 10 October at The Cross Keys



Stand-up

×××
Look it's me!

The Stand Comedy Club – Glasgow



Upcoming Gigs

×××
See me in action!

no event



News

×××
... and other stuff that fell out of my head
  • 3 Easy Ways To Build An Email List For Your Small Business


    Every marketing step taken is for the further goodness to be brought into your business and get it widely spread out, but since the new entries into the business has led to a cut-throat competition to be tackled with the new marketing strategies , which need not to be constant, but has to be ever evolving to meet the demands of the users and their needs, thus you need to gear up and except for a mobile app for your business, you need to get a hands-on training on the effective marketing for your app and your business. Your messaging is part of your services definition in marketing and your brand. Promotional products switch customers to your brands over your competitors. Simply put, marketing is creating something of value and finding the best way to sell it to specific customers, at a considerable profit.

    How to Do Market Research

    1. Define your buyerpurchaser persona.
    2. Identify a portion of that persona to engageto interactto have interactioninteractengage.
    3. Engage your market researchanalysis participantsindividualsmemberscontributors.
    4. Prepare your researchanalysis questions.
    5. List your primarymainmajor competitorsrivalsopponents.
    6. Summarize your findings.

    While research has shown that many people spend a lot of time on social media and with a proper digital marketing strategy in place you can quickly and effectively communicate with your target audience, there has also been research done that suggests more and more teenagers are reducing time spent on social media networks and are instead using messaging platforms more.

    What is Marketing, Actually?

    There I was, minding my very own enterprise, resting after completion of an incredible content material marketing strategy workshop for a shopper. And somebody requested about my opinion on the difference between advertising and marketing and branding.

    I was directed to learn this cartoon that defines advertising as “I’m a terrific lover” vs branding which shows the patron saying “I perceive you’re an incredible lover.”

    This acquired me slightly fired up. OK, quite a bit fired up!

    I’ve already tried to define what advertising is many instances here. I’ve tried to deal with the common notion of marketing as being all about selling and selling. And I’ve taken on the issue of advertising, mad men and their “big” ideas, and the sheer idiocy of banner ads.

    I consider advertising has a advertising and marketing downside. Ask most people what advertising is and so they consider some form of either promoting (I’m nice and you must choose me due to motive A or B) or advertising (purchase our stuff and you’ll have a greater life, be extra enticing, have extra sex, appeal to higher companions, be happier.)

    As the worldwide economy settles into a new normal of consistent doubt, Advertising has an identification downside, a model notion hole, possibly even a crisis of confidence.

    “Enterprise has solely two capabilities – marketing and innovation.”

    When I transitioned out of a successful gross sales profession nearly 15 years in the past, most of my friends thought I was loopy. The head of our division hung up on me (it wasn’t the first time).

    Increasingly, after increasingly conversations with real prospects, I had purchased in to the concept marketing represented the long run. I sold what was “in the gross sales bag.”

    But I needed to assist shape the long run. Naive? Probably. Delusional? Actually. Possible? Undoubtedly!

    “The purpose of selling is to know and perceive the customer so well the product or service fits him and sells itself.”

    Marketing just isn’t about who can speak sooner, or shut higher. It is about deep psychological understanding of buyer needs. Steve Jobs had this present better than nearly any example. Henry Ford. Thomas Edison. Each innovation in the history of the world combined an uncanny understanding of human needs and the innovative vision to ship it.

    “Advertising is just too vital to be left to the advertising division.”

    If enterprise is composed of selling and innovation, and advertising is about deep buyer insights, then advertising is the job of every employee.

    Social media has solely made this level painfully clear: each employee is an extension of the model. The brand serves to satisfy the needs of the client and the enterprise serves to innovate.

    Marketing begins by asking shoppers who they’re, what they need, and what they care about. Advertising starts with a question. Marketing is just not “I am a fantastic lover.” Efficient advertising simply asks “How are you?”

    The five marketing concepts are:

    1. Production concept
    2. Product
    3. Selling concept
    4. Marketing concept
    5. Societal marketing concept

    Digital advertising and marketing has opened up a new world of possibilities when it comes to understanding your customers higher and building relationships with them.

    We now have the ability to collect a vast amount of information about individuals including their demographics, location, shopping habits, earlier brand interactions, likes and dislikes, and extra.

    This knowledge can be used to build an image of your clients in a method that is rather more correct and meaningful than the standard “buyer avatar” exercise.

    Some of the other ways in which today’s fashionable advertising expertise permits us to study extra about and grow better relationships with prospects embrace:

    • Using hyper-personalized messages to talk to every buyer on an individual level
    • Predicting future behavior with synthetic intelligence
    • Publishing content material that is extra related to your audience
    • Seeing what other content material they’re engaging with online
    • Analyzing brand interactions and optimizing your marketing campaigns
    • Automatically staying in contact and nurturing buyer relationships after the initial sale
    • “Listening in” and speaking about your model on social media – and utilizing it to enhance your products and buyer service
    • Conducting buyer surveys easily, cheaply, and with instantly analyzed results

    The Marketing Mix within the Digital Age

    The “marketing mix”, often known as “the 4 Ps” of marketing are considered to be the inspiration of your advertising plan. They characterize the primary choices you’ll have to make when marketing your products or services:

    • Product– what’s going to your product or service truly be and the way does it meet the needs of your buyer?
    • Pricing– what price will you set your product at? This isn’t always a financial determine as prospects may trade their time or info for a “free” product.
    • Place– how do you ship the product to the shopper? Do they come right into a physical store or do you sell on-line? Are you focusing on a particular geographic area?
    • Promotion– what advertising and marketing strategies will you utilize to tell the world about your product?

    Getting the advertising mix proper means you’ll align with your customers’ desires and desires, strengthen your model presence, and maximize your ROI.

    The idea of the 4Ps advertising combine was thought up effectively earlier than the internet became part of regular on a regular basis life, however it can be tailored pretty easily to form the premise for developing a advertising and marketing strategy in at this time’s digital world.

    In the digital advertising mix, the four Ps are the same, but the method is totally different.

    • Product– The web means which you can have a enterprise with no bodily stock. As a substitute, you may sell digital merchandise similar to e-books and courses. Even if you do sell tangible products, the process of product growth has been forever modified. It is now potential to order and create products on-demand to test out the market first, and the power to survey your clients rapidly and easily means you are much less prone to make errors with regards to product improvement.
    • Price– Digital advertising technology implies that you do not have to resolve on a single worth in your product or service – you can dynamically alter the price depending on who’s viewing it. There’s also more flexibility in the case of pricing fashions, with subscriptions and recurring payments made more accessible to businesses and clients of all types.
    • Place– Clearly the principle difference here is you are promoting on-line as a substitute of in a bricks-and-mortar retailer. But there are also many alternative channels to explore in terms of promoting on-line. Your individual website, online market places, e mail, and social media are all avenues to contemplate.
    • Promotion– Once more, you will still promote your product however the methods are completely different than what you’ll have used 30 years ago. As a substitute of unsolicited mail and print promoting, your technique may embrace email advertising and social media marketing as an alternative.

    Marketing, Branding, and Advertising: What is the Distinction?

    Before analyzing additional what advertising and marketing is and how you do it, let’s first define what marketing isnot, so we have now a clearer picture of the topic at hand.

    I already talked about running an ad to your product claiming as being a part of advertising. So are advertising and advertising the same factor?

    Advertising is the precise actions a enterprise owner takes to draw consideration in the direction of a product or service. Collectively, we called these actions “commercials” and they can range from printing a flyer to put up round your neighborhood to working an international TELEVISION or Fb video ad and everything in between.

    Since promoting your product should be a part of your advertising and marketing efforts, advertising becomes a subsection of your advertising strategy.

    In just minutes you’ll have a professional Market Segmentation Matrix that’s ready to share. If the cost of the promotional campaign is required to introduce your product to a particular segment is high in relation to the expected sales, then the value of the segment is low.

    The 4 Ps Model

    • Product –The first of the 4 Ps of marketing is product. A product will be both a tangible good or an intangible service that fulfills a necessity or need of shoppers. Whether you sell custom pallets and wood merchandise or provide luxury accommodations, it’s crucial that you have a clear grasp of precisely what your product is and what makes it distinctive earlier than you can efficiently market it.
    • Price –As soon as a concrete understanding of the product offering is established we can start making some pricing selections. Price determinations will affect revenue margins, supply, demand and advertising and marketing strategy. Comparable (in idea) merchandise and brands could should be positioned differently based on varying price points, while price elasticity issues may affect our next two Ps.
    • Promotion –We have a product and a price now it’s time to market it. Promotion seems at the many ways advertising businesses disseminate related product information to consumers and differentiate a particular services or products. Promotion includes parts like: advertising, public relations, social media advertising and marketing, e mail advertising, search engine advertising, video advertising and extra. Every touch point have to be supported by a properly positioned brand to really maximize return on investment.
    • Place –Usually you’ll hear entrepreneurs saying that advertising is about putting the best product, at the right worth, on the proper place, on the proper time. It’s vital then, to guage what the best locations are to transform potential purchasers into actual clients. In the present day, even in situations the place the actual transaction does not occur on the web, the initial place potential shoppers are engaged and transformed is online.

    Most email marketing providers offer similar services. The reality, is that marketing sits at the intersection of the business and the customer – the great arbiter of the self interests of the business and the needs of the buyer. Perfect, thanks for giving this to me. I forgot to create a list for this email.

    The goal of SMM is to produce content that users will share with their social network to help a company increase brand exposure and broaden customer reach. Research areas: Digital business strategy and business model, Digital marketing & integrated marketing management, Changes in consumer´s, Digital media management.

    Ph.D. student Anna Coates, from the University’s Appetite and Obesity research group, conducted a study to examine the effect of social media marketing of snack foods (healthy and unhealthy), via vloggers’ Instagram pages, on children’s snack intake.

    What Is Advertising?

    Marketing refers to actions undertaken by a company to advertise the shopping for or selling of a product or service. Advertising and marketing consists of advertising, selling, and delivering merchandise to customers or different businesses. Some advertising and marketing is finished by associates on behalf of an organization.

    Professionals who work in an organization’s marketing and promotion departments search to get the eye of key potential audiences via advertising. Promotions are focused to sure audiences and will involve movie star endorsements, catchy phrases or slogans, memorable packaging or graphic designs and total media exposure.

    Understanding Marketing

    Marketing as a self-discipline includes all of the actions a company undertakes to attract in prospects and preserve relationships with them. Networking with potential or past shoppers is a part of the work too, including writing thank you emails, playing golf with a prospective client, returning calls and emails quickly, and meeting with purchasers for espresso or a meal.

    At its most simple, advertising seeks to match a company’s services to prospects who need access to these products. The matching of product to customer in the end ensures profitability.

    How Advertising Works

    Product, price, place, and promotion are the 4 Ps of selling. The Four Ps collectively make up the essential mix a company must market a product or service. Neil Borden popularized the idea of the advertising combine and the idea of the Four Ps in the 1950s.

    What Is Marketing?

    Let’s face it, to the average business particular person, advertising equals promotion.

    Marketing is what you say and the way you say it when you wish to explain how awesome your product is and why folks can purchase it.

    Marketing is an ad. Advertising is a brochure. Advertising is a press release. And more lately, Advertising is a Facebook page or a Twitter account.

    Marketing, to many business folks, is simply promoting at a larger scale.

    The reality, is that advertising sits at the intersection of the enterprise and the client – the good arbiter of the self pursuits of the business and the needs of the customer.

    Quick Takeaways:

    • At a basic degree, marketing is the process of understanding your prospects, and constructing and maintaining relationships with them.
    • Marketing is the important thing to a corporation’s success, regardless of its size.
    • There are a number of sorts and sub-kinds of marketing, digital and offline. It’s best to determine and pursue the ones that work best for you.
    • Marketing and Gross sales teams must have a unified strategy. Automation helps them work towards the identical targets.

    What Is Market Analysis?

    The purpose of market analysis is to provide choice-makers with fast and unbelievable detail about shopper wants, preferences, and conduct. A business enterprise with superior info will get pleasure from a competitive benefit that affords them the chance to develop superior choices, target markets more effectively, and execute higher advertising planning.

    The Digital Marketing Institute offers courses in Digital Marketing, Digital & Social Selling, Strategy and Planning, Social Media, Mobile Marketing, and Search Marketing history of marketing essay – just choose your area of interest. They allows you to group your customers based on their lifestyle, including attitudes, values, habits, and opinions.

  • 500 Phrase Essay Guide From Nerds (UP TO DATE For 2019)


    Describe how you’ll be a particular add-on to the enterprise faculty group. As a result, we suggest that you observe writing pattern essays on numerous topics. In the simplest phrases, your school essay should be pretty near, but not exceeding, the phrase restrict in size. Usually times, concepts evolve while writing a paper.

    Writing suggestions for an essay

    If you will select a right technique to your essay, people perceive you higher. Depending in your work’s type, you could use completely different strategies to improve your essay. We need to counsel a number of kinds of methods on your writing:

    1. Repetition ” this strategy will aid you to convince folks in one thing. Say your perspective in numerous methods and get agreement.
    2. Explain causes ” the power of explanations. Give folks an comprehensible cause to get your viewpoint.
    3. Be consistent ” help your text with evidence and by no means leap from one subject to a different. Your complete essay have to be like a stable approach that can lead the reader to your viewpoint.
    4. Use comparisons ” be at liberty to make use of analogies, similes and metaphors, this will assist to convince people in the event you compare your point of view with one thing that readers accept.
    5. Be a storyteller ” an excellent story can persuade folks much better than the rest. This system is nice if to combine with any mentioned, so you should use it to persuade your readers.

    Writing techniques for beginners

    Beginner writers needs to be acquainted with different writing methods for essays from earlier subjects of this article. However not each newbie knows find out how to construct their essay construction. This isn’t a hard job, and the whole process will simply make your job easier.

    There are several rules for essay structure, and your text ought to have a title, a brief description, a primary half and a conclusion. We advocate next methods to start out an essay:

    1. Choose the main subject;
    2. Make researches on the subject, take vital notes;
    3. Define the fashion of your text (informative or persuading);
    4. Make your record of ideas what are you going to tell people in your essay.

    After doing these steps, chances are you’ll begin to write the plan of your essay. In response to the plan, it is possible for you to to see your essay structure. When it’s carried out, it will be clear for you what to write down subsequent. You’ll simply must undergo your plan and write all the wanted components corresponding to:

    1. Title ” exhibits the primary goal of your work;
    2. Description ” it’s a short rationalization about who might must learn this, and why you recommend people to learn your essay;
    3. Introduction ” here you’ll want to write the thesis and the quick preview about what you will talk about within the essays’ main body, to give readers understanding of your work’s goals;
    4. The fundamental body of your essay should contain many paragraphs, based on your plan.
    5. Conclusion ” the necessary a part of your textual content that summarize the concepts and logically finishes your work.

    Writing efficient public coverage papers maths problems to unravel social drawback solving stock nezu nyu mba essays good interview questions for analysis paper instance of evaluation of associated literature thesis examples learn how to homework in spanish mla format analysis paper guidelines inventive writing levels in arkansas quick analysis proposal brief paper paperwritings four steps for solving quantitative issues ethnography essay topics and examples analysis paper essay examples.

    How many pages do you think is required for a a thousand word essay about. That is the case whether you’re writing an essay throughout an examination 500 word essay example for college or given time to finish it at residence. Our specialization is educational writing, however we additionally serve business people.

    How to Write an Essay Introduction

    How to put in writing an essay introduction from the very scratch? You can start along with your define after which get to your complete paper writing. Some writers desire writing their physique or conclusion paragraphs before they start creating essay introduction paragraph. It’s just as much as you. Listed here are few easy tips any student can apply to his writing:

    • Grab the attention of your reader ” start with something interesting and unique. Get a truth or question that makes your reader engaged and eager about studying this explicit paper.
    • Always follow the formal language and tone ” tutorial writing could be very strict to every part in regards to the paper format. Essay introduction isn’t an exception. Consider informal style solely whether it is requested or allowed by your tutor.
    • Keep your essay introduction instance acutely aware ” counsel your paragraph being brief and hanging but leaving some area for creativeness. Don’t use a lot of particulars.

    Writing suggestions for an essay

    If you’ll choose a proper technique for your essay, folks understand you better. Relying on your work’s type, chances are you’ll use totally different strategies to improve your essay. We want to suggest several sorts of techniques on your writing:

    1. Repetition ” this strategy will aid you to persuade individuals in one thing. Say your point of view in different methods and get agreement.
    2. Explain causes ” the facility of explanations. Give folks an comprehensible cause to get your point of view.
    3. Be consistent ” help your textual content with evidence and by no means leap from one topic to a different. Your complete essay must be like a solid means that will lead the reader to your viewpoint.
    4. Use comparisons ” be at liberty to make use of analogies, similes and metaphors, this will help to convince folks in case you compare your viewpoint with one thing that readers settle for.
    5. Be a storyteller ” a very good story can persuade folks a lot better than anything else. This system is great if to combine with any talked about, so you can use it to persuade your readers.

    What is an essay?

    The most common forms of writing for high school and college college students are essays. Everybody thinks they know what an essay is, after all, all of us needed to write one, however what’s an essay and how can we outline essay?

    A full essay definition: œan article on a particular subject or topic.

    So, considering this can be a broad essay definition, it’s crucial that we perceive all of the several types of essay subject material out there. In fact, an essay will likely be written primarily based on the subject material, whether or not it’s an argumentative essay, one of the types of expository essays thrown at you, or every other kinds of faculty essays, you’ll have to be accustomed to all the kinds to be able to compose it.

    Techniques for writing good essays

    If you want to write a successful essay, you should choose the right technique for writing. Each and every text must has its own subject and purpose, so first of all, you need to think about a subject you want to write about, and about the whole purpose of your work. Your essay may persuade or inform people about subject, and depending on this thing, your text will have its own style. It’s very important to choose a right style from a list of writing techniques. Actually there are different techniques for essay writing , including:

    1. Persuasive style;
    2. Expository style;
    3. Narrative style;
    4. Informative style.

    I

    How to Construction an Essay Introduction

    The final thing we will talk about is the query of tips on how to structure an essay introduction. This isn’t a difficult query as the beginning paragraph consists of three foremost issues:

    • Hook to seize attention
    • Connection to outline your evidence
    • Thesis statement to steer your total paper

    Formal essays are usually educational in nature and sort out critical subjects. Every paragraph is about seventy five-one hundred twenty five phrases, and it consists of 3-5 properly-written sentences. The first paragraph is the introduction ” there you introduce the topic of your task and highlight the thesis assertion.

    For example, in the event you write 500 phrase essay on respect, it’s best to stand in that respect is the main function of a progressive individual. The very fact that they’re short and worded in a really simple method means you are in all probability anticipated to assemble a way more original and complex essay to respond to it.

    Types of Essays for College

    The varieties of essays for school have a different construction. They require more expertise and richer experience. Listed here are few various kinds of essays and examples.

    Compare & Contrast Essay

    This piece of writing explains what the topics have in common and what makes them different. A author might focus on similarities, variations, or each. When choosing both, a writer should begin with listing similarities. The order of the matters is the same between the 2 sections. The examples are:

    • Comparing books
    • Contrasting characters
    • Drawing parallels between historic figures
    • Observing similarities & variations between countries

    Research Essay

    A analysis essay’s objective is to explore the analysis drawback in-depth and share the outcomes of the study with the target market. The problem might be something associated to the studied topic. The construction of this essay is completely different from the frequent essay:

    • Title page
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Methodology
    • Results & Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • Bibliography
    • Appendix (elective)

    Every essay consists of three fundamental elements: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. MyAdmissionsEssay aims to supply inexpensive help to everybody who needs it. Purchase 500 word scholarship essay example 500 phrase essay online for simply $9 per page. We know that many students haven’t got sufficient time to write down complicated papers on difficult matters.

    Common Essay Types

    If you need to reach studying and get high grades, you want to have the ability to write various kinds of essays. Essays are required for college applications and exams of many kinds. Sometimes success of your whole essay is determined by your skill to decide on the proper type of paper. In case you’re confused about different essay varieties, you’re not alone, but we think you could’t afford to stay confused anymore. There are plenty of essay varieties, however there are just a few commonest ones, so we determined to take a closer look to any one in all them.

    All types differ by goal. A few of them indicate storytelling, for others it’s worthwhile to draw a vivid image, or on opposite, give solely facts with no pointless phrases. Your essay might give readers new data, or specific your emotions about certain period of your life. Typically you just need to convince others to accept your opinion on sure subject. Relying on purpose, we are able to distinguish most typical essay varieties.

    • Descriptive essays. Writing such an essay, you must paint a picture with your phrases. The aim is to explain a sure object, place, or experience. Nonetheless, it’s not only a description. An essay should express the deepest that means of a certain state of affairs, or topic. This sort of essay requires developed writing expertise and an ability to make use of vivid words. Your goal is the emotions of your readers.
    • Narrative essays. This kind requires you to put in writing about your real expertise. This sort could appear to be relatively easy, but don’t let this apparent simplicity blind you. First of all, that you must express your reminiscences in a concise means. You have to select crucial things and eliminate pointless details, to let your readers get you as clear as potential. You additionally must involve your readers and be inventive. We advise you to jot down in the first person, because it helps readers feel you and perceive your story easier. You also want to clarify why this story is essential for you and useful for others.
    • Persuasive essays. Right here your objective is to convince the reader and make her or him accept your own point on a selected challenge. It’s all about facts and your means to current these information in essentially the most persuasive way. You too can use quotes of experts to assist your point with authoritative sources. One other essential thing is to not be one-sided. All the time be sure that to offer detailed information and opinions from totally different sides. Together with this, you must be able to clarify, why your individual level is the precise one.

    Studying your essay out loud will assist you to notice areas the place your writing may be unclear or awkwardly worded. Definition: Select one of the topics beneath and relate your concepts in a clearly organized definition essay. My exasperated pen pal continued, My essay has around 650 words, and if I cut it all the way down to 500 words, the power of my essay appears to. Write 500 word narrative essay.



Reviews

×××
What the experts said

“A gem of a show” – Fringe Reviewread more

“He has won our gong shows 6 times. Very well written material with killer punchlines.” – Spiky Mike, Funhouse Comedy Clubs

“A compelling stage presence ushering forth gently acidic one-liners with many an unexpected twist. In short, a most amusing cove” – Anthony J Brown – Stagefright Comedy

“Consistently good performances” Notts Comedy Reviewread more

“Solidly funny over 20 minutes with several bits you’ll want to tell your mates as if you wrote it.” – Paul Savage, Comedian

“Very Funny.” – Phil Walker, www.phil-walker.com

“I contacted Patrick after I had a cancellation and boy am I glad I did. What a class act. His dead pan style and great material had the crowd in bits. Superb work.” – Andrew Nightingale , CAN Comedy.

“One of tightest & well constructed middle sets as I’ve seen!” – Lewis – Big Lou – Jones http://twitter.com/bigloucomedy

“A storming performance.” – Dave Dinsdale – writing on the West Midlands Comedy Forum

“A fresh talent with lines that will have you crying.”
“One of the highlights of the night.” Al Rudge, Midlands Based Comic Magician & Promoter

“A somewhat dour sounding Northern chap, a most excellent and worthy closing act with quality material and a really polished delivery. A top turn indeed.” – -Si-Chadwick – writing on the West Midlands Comedy Forum

“He rolls along darkly humorous stories, each with a hint of sadness but even more amusement. Ultimately, there can be only one winner, maybe the £50 will even make him smile a bit?” – Scorpio Promotions Review scorpio-promotions.com



Contact Me

×××
I'll be glad to answer your questions!

© Patrick Draper 2015. All rights reserved.

2 + 3 =
Please, write your name. Please, insert your email address. Please, leave a message. Umh, are you good with math?


Newsletter

×××
Subscribe to hear more ramblings from me!



1 + 3 =